Valuation of Goods and Services in GST Law: The value of the supply is the amount on which the GST is chargeable. Determination of value of the supply is not only required to charge the goods and services tax, but also for arriving at the value of supply to compute the turnover prescribed for obtaining registration under GST. The GST Law has adopted the concept of ‘Transaction Value’ for determining the taxable value of supply on which the goods and services tax shall be levied. Currently, the concept of ‘Transaction Value’ is followed both under Central Excise and Customs legislation for levying central excise and customs duties by the Central government.

As per Section 15 of the CGST Act 2017 the value of a supply of goods or services or both shall be the transaction value, which is the price actually paid or payable for the said supply of goods or services or both where the supplier and the recipient of the supply are not related and the price is the sole consideration for the supply. The section further provides that the transaction value for the purpose of valuing a taxable supply shall also include following items:

(a) any taxes, duties, cesses, fees and charges levied under any law for the time being in force other than this Act, the State Goods and Services Tax Act, the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act and the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act, if charged separately by the supplier;

(b) any amount that the supplier is liable to pay in relation to such supply but which has been incurred by the recipient of the supply and not included in the price actually paid or payable for the goods or services or both;

(c)  incidental expenses, including commission and packing, charged by the supplier to the recipient of a supply and any amount charged for anything done by the supplier in respect of the supply of goods or services or both at the time of, or before delivery of goods or supply of services;

(d) interest or late fee or penalty for delayed payment of any consideration for any supply; and

(e) subsidies directly linked to the price excluding subsidies provided by the Central Government and State Governments (the amount of subsidy shall be included in the value of supply of the supplier who receives the subsidy).

Treatment of ‘Discount’ in determining Value of Supply

The value of the supply shall not include any discount which is given––

(a) before or at the time of the supply if such discount has been duly recorded in the invoice issued in respect of such supply; and

(b) after the supply has been effected, if—

(i) such discount is established in terms of an agreement entered into at or before the time of such supply and specifically linked to relevant invoices; and

(ii) input tax credit as is attributable to the discount on the basis of document issued by the supplier has been reversed by the recipient of the supply.

Specific Valuation Rule for Particular Situation

Chapter IV of the Goods and Service Tax Rules, 2017 [Notified vide N. No. 10 /2017 – Central Tax dated 28-06-2017] has prescribed certain valuation rules for particular situation which are as under:

Value of supply of goods or services where the consideration is not wholly in money (Rule 27): Where the supply of goods or services is for a consideration not wholly in money, the value of the supply shall,-

(a) be the open market value of such supply;

(b) if the open market value is not available under clause (a), be the sum total of consideration in money and any such further amount in money as is equivalent to the consideration not in money, if such amount is known at the time of supply;

(c) if the value of supply is not determinable under clause (a) or clause (b), be the value of supply of goods or services or both of like kind and quality;

(d)if the value is not determinable under clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c), be the sum total of consideration in money and such further amount in money that is equivalent to consideration not in money as determined by the application of rule  30 or rule 31 in that order.

Illustration:
(1) Where a new phone is supplied for twenty thousand rupees along with the exchange of an old phone and if the price of the new phone without exchange is twenty four thousand rupees, the open market value of the new phone is twenty four thousand rupees.
(2) Where a laptop is supplied for forty thousand rupees along with the barter of a printer that is manufactured by the recipient and the value of the printer known at the time of supply is four thousand rupees but the open market value of the laptop is not known, the value of the supply of the laptop is forty four thousand rupees.

Value of Supply of Goods or Services or both between distinct or Related Persons, other than through an Agent (Rule 28): The value of the supply of goods or services or both between distinct persons as specified in sub-section (4) and (5) of section 25 or where the supplier and recipient are related, other than where the supply is made through an agent, shall:

(a) be the open market value of such supply;

(b) if the open market value is not available, be the value of supply of goods or services of like kind and quality;

(c)  if the value is not determinable under clause (a) or (b), be the value as determined by the application of rule 30 or rule 31, in that order:

Provided that where the goods are intended for further supply as such by the recipient, the value shall, at the option of the supplier, be an amount equivalent to ninety percent of the price charged for the supply of goods of like kind and quality by the recipient to his customer not being a related person:

Provided further that where the recipient is eligible for full input tax credit, the value declared in the invoice shall be deemed to be the open market value of the goods or services.

Value of supply of goods made or received through an Agent (Rule 29): The value of supply of goods between the principal and his agent shall :

(a) be the open market value of the goods being supplied, or at the option of the supplier, be ninety per cent. of the price charged for the supply of goods of like kind and quality by the recipient to his customer not being a related person, where the goods are intended for further supply by the said recipient.

Illustration:
A principal supplies groundnut to his agent and the agent is supplying groundnuts of like kind and quality in subsequent supplies at a price of five thousand rupees per quintal on the day of the supply. Another independent supplier is supplying groundnuts of like kind and quality to the said agent at the price of four thousand five hundred and fifty rupees per quintal. The value of the supply made by the principal shall be four thousand five hundred and fifty rupees per quintal or where he exercises the option, the value shall be 90 per cent. of five thousand rupees i.e., four thousand five hundred rupees per quintal.

(b) where the value of a supply is not determinable under clause (a), the same shall be determined by the application of rule 30 or rule 31 in that order.

Value of supply of goods or services or both based on cost (Rule 30): Where the value of a supply of goods or services or both is not determinable by any of the preceding rules of this Chapter, the value shall be one hundred and ten percent of the cost of production or manufacture or the cost of acquisition of such goods or the cost of provision of such  services.

Residual method for determination of value of supply of goods or services or both (Rule 31): Where the value of supply of goods or services or both cannot be determined under rules 27 to 30, the same shall be determined using reasonable means consistent with the principles and the general provisions of section 15 and the provisions of this Chapter:

Provided that in the case of supply of services, the supplier may opt for this rule, ignoring rule 30.

Purchase or Sale of Foreign Currency (Rule 32(2)): The value of supply of services in relation to the purchase or sale of foreign currency, including money changing, shall be determined by the supplier of services in the following manner, namely:-

(a) for a currency, when exchanged from, or to, Indian Rupees, the value shall be equal to the difference in the buying rate or the selling rate, as the case may be, and the Reserve Bank of India reference rate for that currency at that time, multiplied by the total units of currency.

In case where the Reserve Bank of India reference rate for a currency is not available, the value shall be one per cent. of the gross amount of Indian Rupees provided or received by the person changing the money:

In case where neither of the currencies exchanged is Indian Rupees, the value shall be equal to one per cent. of the lesser of the two amounts the person changing the money would have received by converting any of the two currencies into Indian Rupee on that day at the reference rate provided by the Reserve Bank of India.

A person supplying the services may exercise the option to ascertain the value in terms of clause (b) for a financial year and such  option shall not be withdrawn during the remaining part of that financial year.

(b) at the option of the supplier of services, the value in relation to the supply of foreign currency, including money changing, shall be deemed to be-

(i) 1% of the gross amount of currency exchanged for an amount up to Rs.1 lakh, subject to a minimum amount of Rs.250/-.

(ii) Rs.1,000/- and 0.50% of the gross amount of  currency exchanged for an amount exceeding Rs. 1 lakh and up to  Rs.10 lakh; and

(iii)  Rs.5,500/- and 0.10% of the gross amount of currency exchanged for an amount exceeding Rs.10 lakh, subject to a maximum amount of Rs.60,000/-.

Booking of Air Travel Tickets through Agent (Rule 32(3)): The value of the supply of services in relation to booking of tickets for travel by air provided by an air travel agent shall be deemed to be an amount calculated at the rate of five per cent. of the basic fare in the case of domestic bookings, and at the rate of ten per cent. of the basic fare in the case of international bookings of passage for travel by air.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this sub-rule, the expression “basic fare” means that part of the air fare on which commission is normally paid to the air travel agent by the airlines.

Life Insurance (Rule 32(4)): The value of supply of services in relation to life insurance business shall be,-

(a) the gross premium charged from a policy holder reduced by the amount allocated for investment, or savings on behalf of the policy holder, if such an amount is intimated to the policy holder at the time of supply of service;

(b) in case of single premium annuity policies other than (a), 10% of single premium charged from the policy holder; or

(c) in all other cases, 25% of the premium charged from the policy holder in the first year and 12.50% of the premium charged from the policy holder in subsequent years:

The above Rules will not applicable in case where the entire premium paid by the policy holder is only towards the risk cover in life insurance.

Buying and Selling of Second Hand Goods (Rule 32(5)): Where a taxable supply is provided by a person dealing in buying and selling of second hand goods i.e., used goods as such or after such minor processing which does not change the nature of the goods and where no input tax credit has been availed on the purchase of such goods, the value of supply shall be the difference between the selling price and the purchase price and where the value of such supply is negative, it shall be ignored:

The purchase value of goods repossessed from a defaulting borrower, who is not registered, for the purpose of recovery of a loan or debt shall be deemed to be the purchase price of such goods by the defaulting borrower reduced by five percentage points for every quarter or part thereof, between the date of purchase and the date of disposal by the person making such repossession.

Token, Voucher, Coupon (Rule 32(6)): The value of a token, or a voucher, or a coupon, or a stamp (other than postage stamp) which is redeemable against a supply of goods or services or both shall be equal to the money value of the goods or services or both redeemable against such token, voucher, coupon, or stamp.

Value of supply of services in case of Pure Agent (Rule 33): The expenditure or costs incurred by a supplier as a pure agent of the recipient of supply shall be excluded from the value of supply, if all the following conditions are satisfied, namely,-

(i)   the supplier acts as a pure agent of the recipient of the supply, when he makes the payment to the third party on authorisation by such recipient;

(ii)   the payment made by the pure agent on behalf of the recipient of supply has been separately indicated in the invoice issued by the pure agent to the recipient  of service; and

(iii)    the supplies procured by the pure agent from the third party as a pure agent of the recipient of supply are in addition to the services he supplies on his own account.

Explanation.- For the purposes of this rule, the expression “pure agent” means a person who-

(a) enters into a contractual agreement with the recipient of supply to act as his pure agent to incur expenditure or costs in the course of supply of goods or services or both;

(b) neither intends to hold nor holds any title to the goods or services or both so procured or supplied as pure agent of the recipient of supply;

(c) does not use for his own interest such goods or services so procured; and

(d) receives only the actual amount incurred to procure such goods or services in addition to the amount received for supply he provides on his own account.

Illustration.-
Corporate services firm A is engaged to handle the legal work pertaining to the incorporation of Company B. Other than its service fees, A also recovers from B,  registration fee and approval fee for the name of the company paid to the Registrar of Companies. The fees charged by the Registrar of Companies for the registration and approval of the name are compulsorily levied on B. A is merely acting as a pure agent in the payment of those fees. Therefore, A’s recovery of such expenses is a disbursement and not part of the value of supply made by A to B.

Rate of exchange of currency, other than Indian rupees, for determination of value (Rule 34): The rate of exchange for the determination of the value of taxable goods or services or both shall be the applicable reference rate for that currency as determined by the Reserve Bank of India on the date of time of supply in respect of such supply in terms of section 12 or, as the case may be, section 13 of the Act.

Value of Supply inclusive of Integrated Tax, Central Tax, State Tax, Union Territory Tax (Rule 35): Where the value of supply is inclusive of integrated tax or, as the case may be, central tax, State tax, Union territory tax, the tax amount shall be determined in the following manner, namely,-

Tax amount = (Value inclusive of taxes X tax rate in % of IGST or, as the case may be, CGST, SGST or UTGST) ÷ (100+ sum of tax rates, as applicable, in %)

Explanation.- For the purposes of the provisions of this Chapter, the expressions-

(a) “open market value” of a supply of goods or services or both means the full value in money, excluding the integrated tax, central tax, State tax, Union territory tax and the cess payable by a person in a transaction, where the supplier and the recipient of the supply are not related and the price is the sole consideration, to obtain such supply at the same time when the supply being valued is made;

(b) “supply of goods or services or both of like kind and quality” means any other supply of goods or services or both made under similar circumstances that, in respect of the characteristics, quality, quantity, functional components, materials, and  the reputation of the goods or services or both first mentioned, is the same as, or closely or substantially resembles, that supply of goods or services or both.

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